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During the course of the Industrial Revolution, people moved to where the jobs were. In most cases, this meant that people moved from their farms to a city. However, where people lived often depended upon what job they could get, and the income to afford housing came with what job they got. Since the city offered a wide variety of jobs, a wide variety of people came to fill those jobs. Thus, within the cities, social divisions sprang up, some of which were due to economic reasons and others were due to cultural reasons.

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The cities continued to grow, and in order to make sense out of this social change, Ernest W. Burgess, Ph.D. (the 24th President of the American Sociological Society) came up with a model. In 1925, Dr. Burgess presented his . The concentric zone model was one of the first theories to explain urban social structures.

The concentric zone model divides cities into sets of concentric circles. Dr. Burgess used Chicago as an example, explaining that that the bulls-eye, or the inner circle, is where the downtown area is. For clarity's sake, the concentric circles will be named 'zones,' with Zone 1 being the innermost circle.

Dr. Burgess's model assumes that there is a correlation between where you live and how much money you earn. For example, the further from Zone 1, the more money you make, and thus you can afford a better quality of housing. Although the concentric zone model cannot be applied universally to all cities, it does take into account gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. Gemeinschaft can be seen in individuals who live outside of Zone 6. These people live in a rural environment and do not want to give up their sense of community by moving to a city, even though they don't make as much money as Zone 6 people. While gesellschaft can be seen in individuals who live in any of the zones, these individuals left their sense of community and have become an individual working and living in a city for the chance to have a better quality of life.

Lesson Summary

In this lesson, we discussed the contributions of two social scientists: Ferdinand Tönnies and Ernest W. Burgess. Tönnies observed the shift in populations from a rural environment to an urban environment, and he sought to classify the social change. He determined that there were two ideas that could take into account this social change: gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. Gemeinschaft can be attributed to individuals living in a tight-knit rural community, and gesellschaft can be attributed to the individual living in a city who is trying to improve the quality of life for themselves.

The cities changed with all of these people migrating into them in an effort to find work, and some of the original residents were displaced by gentrification. Ernest W. Burgess determined to make sense out of all of the changes happening in the cities by developing his concentric zone model. This model shows that a city will be divided up based upon how much money you make and where you live.

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The use of cacao for health dates back at least 3,000 years. Based on extensive research, the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin.

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Magnesium is key to muscle and nerve function, keeping the heart rhythm steady. Thanks to its high magnesium content, along with the effects of epicatechin, cacao improves muscle structure and enhances nerve function. (, )

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Yes, you can lose weight when eating cacao! Now, it’s critical that you keep this in check, as cacao is high in fat and calories, but if you eat pure cacao or cacao nibs, you can get lots of fiber, which makes you feel fuller.

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. Metabotropic receptors have a slow-acting effect, sensitizing or desensitizing neurons by changing the strength of signal transmission between neurons. I mentioned this before.

Examples of neuromodulators: opioid peptides such as enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins.

Examples of Neuromodulators that are also neurotransmitters: acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and octopamine.

You should be noticing a pattern now. Many chemical messengers that are neurotransmitters also act as a neuromodulators.

The three main things distinguish neuromodulators as a subclass:

1. They are released “diffusely” via “volume transmission”, that is, the neurotransmitter is generally released into the neural tissue and not at a specific synapse, so it functions more as a chemical broadcast signal to a (possibly small) brain region rather than being targeted at particular neurons.

2. They generally use a different different type of neuroreceptor. The targeted, synaptically-released neurotransmitters use fast-acting “ionic” neuroreceptors that transmit positive (+) and negative (-) electrical signals into the target neuron. Neuromodulators, however, use so-called “metabotropic” or “G-protein” neuroreceptors of three types: Gs, Gi, and Gq. These are slow-acting receptors that tune and modulate the functioning of the neuron over longer periods.

3. There are specific neurotransmitters that have been categorized as neuromodulators because they almost always work in the way described by #1 and #2. Those are: dopamine (D receptors), serotonin (5HT receptors), acetylcholine (M and nicotinic receptors), noradrenaline (alpha and beta receptors), and histamine (H receptors). These neurotransmitters tune the functioning of neural circuits in neural tissue rather than sending signals directly into particular neurons. [1]

The kind of receptor the chemical interacts with determines whether its considered a neurotansmitter or a neuromodulator.

Because the receptor is what matters, the same chemical can be both a fast-acting neurotransmitter and a slow-acting neuromodulator. In some cases, the same chemical can have both effects on the same postsynaptic cell simultaneously.

A neurohormone is a chemical messenger that is released by neuroendocrine cells. Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive an input from neurons like neurotransmitters, and in response output or release messenger molecules (a.k.a. hormones) into the blood stream.

By releasing the hormones into the blood stream, neurohormones can exert its effect on very distant peripheral targets . Neurohormones differ from neuromodulator in the extent of their actions .

distant peripheral targets extent of their actions

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